Compared to white clover and other legumes, red clover has high levels of an enzyme that causes its' protein to be digested more slowly and effectively -- it's more nutritious per mouthful. However, currently, red clover only grows well for two or three seasons and it does not recover well from grazing by livestock. It also does not lend itself easily to traditional crop breeding practices, with severe loss of vigour and fertility if inbred.
An ongoing project at TGAC and IBERS aims to use a collection of diverse natural lines of red clover for breeding new elite varieties more tolerant to grazing, thus making it more persistent, and to understand the domestication process that led to the adoption of red clover as a crop. For the breeders, this draft genome provides a welcome tool, with which to speed up incorporation of traits that are beneficial for the clovers' use in sustainable agriculture from natural populations of red clover plants sampled from all over Europe.
Widening of the genetic diversity of the breeding populations will help to make red clover a more robust and reliable crop. Therefore, the genome sequence promises to be a valuable platform for advances in studies of traits of biological and agronomic importance in forage crops. Lead author Jose de Vega, Researcher at TGAC, said: "The publication of the red clover reference genome is an important milestone, as it represents the first genome sequence of the clover forage crops, which are key components of more sustainable livestock agriculture.
We work closely with Dr David Lloyd, IBERS forage legume breeder, so we are using our genomic tools to assist in improving the precision and speed of breeding better red clover varieties. This is very timely as the importance of legumes in sustainable agriculture is "rediscovered.
The development of a more sustainable agriculture is a key aspect of the UK research strategy, positioning both Institute's as international leaders in biotechnology specifically in the area of forage legumes. This is delivering impact to a broad range of stakeholders and ensuring that the genomics resources will be translated to research and breeding programmes. The study entitled: "Red clover Trifolium pratense L. Materials provided by The Genome Analysis Centre.
Red clover genome to help restore sustainable farming -- ScienceDaily
Entire Site De Gruyter Online. Sign in Register. English Deutsch. Iulia Nitu iulianituro yahoo. Open access. The cluster analysis of microsatellites data arranged red clover genotypes in the two groups Figure 2. Grouping of genotypes by the use of microsatellite markers was not in accordance with their geographical origin. Figure 3 refers to the PCoA of 46 red clover genotypes based on microsatellite markers and it shows that the first and second axis explained The grouping of genotypes based on microsatellites, reveals the following genotypes which are genetically different in their molecular data in relation to the majority of genotypes that were clustered around the axis of the central part of PCoA graphics: Cortanovci, 91 E, NCPGRU4, Violeta, Nessonas, Una, 91 E, Violetta, Marino.
There was no relationship between PCoA grouping of genotypes and their geographical origin, as with the cluster analysis. AMOVA was used to test genetic variation among and within three groups: the first group consisted of 18 diploid populations, the second group was comprised of 21 diploid varieties, and the third group consisted of seven tetraploid varieties.
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However, the variance between groups was much lower in regard to variations within analyzed groups, pointing to weak intergroup differentiation. An average number of alleles per locus in this study 13 was a significant indicator of the genetic diversity of investigated red clover genotypes, and it was higher than in the research studies of other authors who have also used SSRs in red clover.
Sato et al. Dias et al. Berzina et al. Vymyslicky et al. Gupta et al. PIC values determined in this study were somewhat lower when compared to the results of other authors. PIC values established by Sato et al. PIC values determined in the work of Dias et al.
AMOVA was used for the purpose of detailed consideration of genetic variability and differentiation of the studied 46 red clover genotypes. The high within-population variability and high heterogeneity and heterozygosity of red clover are expected because of cross pollination of this species and its extraordinarily high level of gametophytic self-incompatibility Rosso and Pagano, Greater within-group variability in relation to among-group also was found by other authors.
In the same research by the application of AMOVA in three populations of red clover, it was also found that the within-group variability was higher Dugar and Popov have studied 15 Ukrainian red clover cultivars and found that the among-group genetic variability of SSR markers was low and that it amounted only 6.
Considering our molecular results, it can be concluded that the application of 14 microsatellite markers on the selected set of 46 red clover genotypes in these research, detected a significant genetic variability, which is the basic precondition for the creation of new and improvement of existing varieties.
In this respect, based on microsatellite markers, we observed two groups of genotypes, specifically 16 genotypes which were separated in relation to the larger number of the remaining 30 genotypes, which in addition to data on agronomically important qualitative and quantitative traits could be used in future breeding programs for the initial selection of germplasm.
This research was conducted as a part of the project TR "Increasing market significance of forage crops by breeding and optimizing seed production technology" that was funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia.
The authors of this paper would like to sincerely thank the Department of Genetics of Biology Research Center in Tripoli.
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Berzina, I. Genetic fingerprinting of Latvian red clover Trifolium pratense L. Latvian Journal of Agronomy Botstein, D. Construction of a genetic linkage map in man using restriction fragment length polymorphism. American Journal of Human Genetics Chen, Y. Relationship between origin and genetic diversity in Chinese soybean germplasm. Crop Science 45 4 Dice, L. Measures of the amount of ecologic association between species. Ecology Dias, P. Genetic diversity in red clover Trifolium pratense L.
A REVIEW ON CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF TRIFOLIUM PRATENSE
Euphytica Drobna, J. Estimation of red clover Trifolium pratense L.
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- Selection for Yellow Clover Aphid and Pea Aphid Resistance in Red Clover?
Plant Soil and Environment 52 10 Dugar, Y. Genetic structure and diversity of Ukrainian red clover cultivars revealed by microsatellite markers.
Open Journal of Genetics Excoffier, L. Arlequin suite ver. Molecular Ecology Resources Finckh, M. Integration of breeding and technology into diversification strategies for disease control in modern agriculture. European Journal of Plant Pathology Gupta, M. Analysis of genetic diversity and structure in a genebank collection of red clover Trifolium pratense L. Plant Genetic Resources Hartl, D. Principles of population genetics. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, UK. He, C. Development and characterization of SSR markers and their use to assess genetic relationships among alfalfa germplasms.
Crop Science He, J.